Tuesday, December 31, 2019
The story has different elements that make it a story, that make it whole. Setting is one of those elements. The book defines setting as Ã¢â¬Å"the context in which the action of the story occursÃ¢â¬ (131). After reading Ã¢â¬Å"SoldierÃ¢â¬â¢s HomeÃ¢â¬ by Ernest Hemmingway, setting played a very important part to this story. From researching about setting in a story, I have found many wonderful sources that help me prove my point. For example, William Tapply explains setting in his article, Ã¢â¬Å"setting comprises all the conditions under which things happen: region, geography, neighborhood, buildings, interiors, climate, weather, time of day, season of year.Ã¢â¬ A different setting could possibly change the outcome or the mood of the story and this could make theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦New York City or even Los Angeles might have created a different setting for KrebÃ¢â¬â¢s. Maybe these towns might have offered a more exciting lifestyle for this young man. Hemmingway is maybe trying to portray that KrebÃ¢â¬â¢s was held down by consequences of the war and this Oklahoma town would again have consequences for KrebÃ¢â¬â¢s. Marriage, children, and a steady job were these the consequences KrebÃ¢â¬â¢s spoke of when he mentioned courting the women in this town? Possibly, and he knew that he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to live a lie any longer. Second, what is the mood of this story trying to portray with the setting. The importance of setting could add atmosphere and tone. Another really great point made by Meredith Bond, Ã¢â¬Å"atmosphere and tone: it gives a feeling to the story. It establishes an atmosphere so you know what kind of story it is going to be (Bond).Ã¢â¬ The setting created a very somber and regretful mood for KrebÃ¢â¬â¢s. This young manÃ¢â¬â¢s parents feel that he has lost his ambition that he possibly once had before the war. A different setting could have changed this mood and feelings of the story. Hemmingw ay wanted to prove that people change with war and he did with the setting. He set the mood of the story with the happiness of the fraternity pictures and college. Then he changed the mood very quickly with the horrible stories the town had heard about the war. Smaller,Show MoreRelatedThemes Of Fahrenheit 451 And The Portable Phonograph724 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThroughout someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, no matter their age, gender, or sociality, every person is bound to encounter some form of literature. Inside every piece of literature the author always has a purpose. It may not be clear to all, but everything has a lesson, suggestion, and a central message. The central message the author is trying to convey is also known as the theme. In the books Fahrenheit 451 and Ã¢â¬Å"The Portable PhonographÃ¢â¬ the possible themes are not crystal clear. It is up to the reader to draw conclusionsRead MoreEdgar Allan Poe s Fall Of The House Of Usher And Joyce Carol Oates858 Words Ã |Ã 4 Page shave been quite bothersome. As emphasized with the few sentences prior, setting is one of the most important components of a story. In both Edgar Allan PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s Fall of the House of Usher and Joyce Carol OatesÃ¢â¬â¢ Where is Here? it is quite clear what the importance of setting does to a story and how it impacts all of literature. Within both Fall of the House of Usher and Where is Here? by Poe and Oates, the importance of setting is displayed. One of the ways this is done, is by using such descriptiveRead MoreUse Of Setting And Symbolism Of The Works Of Charlotte Perkins Gilman And Robert Frost1424 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages[L]iterature is an art, and . . . as an art it is able to enlarge and refine our understanding of lifeÃ¢â¬ (Elkins para2). Reading literature teaches us about the world and a host of other human experiences. 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This also allows readers to imagine how others in the story would react to the mainRead MoreFiction Essay1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pag esEnglish 102 B43Ã¢â¬â Literature and Composition Spring 2014 Term A Jessica Jack, Student ID#25840627 APA Format Compare and Contrast Short Story Fiction Essay Jessica Jack Liberty University English 102-B43 Outline for Compare and Contrast Essay Thesis: Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking-Horse WinnerÃ¢â¬ by D.H. Lawrence and Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ , by Shirley Jackson provide two contrasting uses of Setting in a short story which accentuate the importance of the element in a story. One author has the ability to distractRead MorePoetry Essay, the Road Not Taken869 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Road Not Taken: Poetry Essay COURSE AND TITLE: ENGL 102: Literature and Composition SEMESTER OF ENROLLMENT: NAME: WRITING STYLE USED: MLA . Thesis statement: The symbolic setting, title, content and metrical devices support the poemÃ¢â¬â¢s (The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost) overall meaning. Outline: Title Ã¢â¬Å"Poetry EssayÃ¢â¬ I. Introduction A. The influence of decision making process in human life. B. The problem faced byRead MoreQuality, Safe And Accessible Health Care1244 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesservice quality. The essay then discusses the application of SERVQUAL in heath care settings and also some criticism about SERVQUAL. The essay finally argues its applicability in measuring patient satisfaction and service quality within health settings. Models of Service Quality and SERVQUAL In order to understand service quality and models proposed to assess it, Seth, Deshmukh, Vrat (2005) conducted a literature review of the service quality models and examined 19 different service quality modelsRead MoreThe Reality Effect By Roland Barthes921 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The Reality EffectÃ¢â¬ , arguing the most superfluous details have a significant impact on the analysis of a piece of literature and that these small details are essential to a modern work of literature .The seemingly insignificant details could be overlooked, however, it is what makes the setting and actions within a work of literature appear to be reality. Among several works of literature, this proves to be true as authors place everything in its place for a significant reason, even if it at first appearsRead MoreThe Psychosocial Aspects Of Any Condition854 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestaken into account to achieve patient centred care. The literature for CNSLBP suggests that the influences are substant ial, so much so that they have been shown to contribute to the outcomes of non-psychosocial interventions. Physiotherapists can therefore begin to extend their scope of practice, considering the psychosocial impacts of CNSLBP to their patients, and how to best address them. Hill and FritzÃ¢â¬â¢s (2011) synthesis of the literature highlighted the considerable prevalence of psychosocial
Monday, December 23, 2019
Importance of Theory Fran Lauriha Chamberlain College of nursing Importance of Theory There are many ideas about theory in nursing. The definition of nursing theory is a group of concepts that can be tested, changed or used to guide research (McEwen Willis, 2014). This writer was exposed to theory in under-graduate classes but in the last four years of practice hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t put a lot of thought into nursing theory. Although, knowing and understanding that nursing theory is part of daily nursing practice. This paper will review the importance of nursing theory. It will also focus on Patricia BennerÃ¢â¬â¢s Novice to Expert Theory. Importance of Theory Many nurse theorists have shaped the way nurses practice today by defining our practiceÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Nursing adapts theory to practice, by shaping our own practice, our work environment, specialty and education (Jones, 2014). Novice to Expert Theory The theory that was selected for this paper is Patricia BennerÃ¢â¬â¢s Novice to Expert Theory. This theory was selected because of the impact it can have on nursing leadership. The Emergency Nurses AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢s position statement on leadership says that emergency department leaders should be personally engaged in professional growth as they advance from novice to expert through life- long learning, mentoring and classroom experience (ENA, 2012). There are five stages that Benner developed for theory. The stages that a nurse moves through are: novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert (Drumm, 2013). The novice nurse are nurses that still need told what to do. The advanced beginner begins to practice based on principles (From novice to expert, 2013). Advanced beginner is the nurse who has practiced for two to three years and is beginning to be more aware of long term goals (From novice to expert, 2013). The proficient nurse sees the process in its entirety and improves in their decision making skills (From novice to expert, 2013). The expert nurse has experience and understand fully how to make decisions (From novice to expert, 2013). In each stage the nurse gains clinical experience. The four concepts of the
Sunday, December 15, 2019
As a huge worldwide company. Coca-Cola uses colorful images, where youth with smiling face holding the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product to show the positive energy it is sharing throughout the world to its investors, the descriptive and powerful wording in its paragraphs under each part of its report, where it provides detailed explanation about its performance in the preceding year to make its message more convincing and understandable for Investors, and lastly the company provides colorful graphic representation of its data to make it easier for an Impatient reader, who prefer to extract key message quickly. Coca-Cola Company illustrates its performance by the colorful and positive images to show the positive energy it is sharing throughout the world to its investors. We will write a custom essay sample on Annual Report Summary or any similar topic only for you Order Now The youth, with happy faces holding the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products represent different nationalities showing that Coca-Cola performs worldwide and shares happiness throughout the world. As it stated on the second page of the report, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s key strategy Is to be bonded with Its customers and share experiences related to their product and the images, the company uses, shows visual Image of Its strategy. The creativeness and positive mages are the best attention catcher, because most investors skim over the report and the colorful images would be a key tool to get attention of such investors. It also shows to investors how the company shares happiness with its customers. The images, where illustrated youth, shows that the company has a bright future. These all serves as a key to attract Investors, who always look for positives. However, the Images will not be enough for some investors and they may prefer to go over the report and in this case, the strong verbal techniques will come to play. Coca-Cola sees the descriptive and powerful wording in its paragraphs under each part of its report, where it provides detailed explanation about its performance in the preceding year, to make its message more convincing and understandable for investors. The company provides an information about its performance by using numerical data and simple, but powerful words. Its positive and friendly tone makes Its reader to think about the company positively and the evidences given In each part makes the information the company sharing reliable. The company chooses powerful words and always talks as Ã¢â¬Å"weÃ¢â¬ , which shows the strong connection between its people. The positive and detailed tone serves as driven tool for investors and most investors look for easy to read and convenient to use information. In addition, the most Investors work with numbers and they risk their money relying on those according to those numbers they can predict the future too. So, the numbers in addition to words serves as an evidence to compel the investors. The company achieves investorsÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction by this feature. Lastly, the company provides colorful graphic representation of its data to make it easy for impatient reader, who prefer to extract key messages quickly. In the Ã¢â¬Å"Operating GroupsÃ¢â¬ section of the report, the many uses visual graphs and colorful maps with numbers to show important data about its operations. There is also the images of products with pie diagrams to present the selling performance of each product throughout the world. As a worldwide company, Coca-Cola gives detailed information by using data and graphs about its performance in 2012 in its international market. As we know, most investors do not want to read the report word by word. They prefer to understand and get needed information quickly, in one glance. The graphs, maps and diagrams, the company provides, serves as powerful tool on this. The investor can open needed section and see all data needed by observing graphs and diagrams. This strategy benefits Coca-Cola by catching the attention of impatient investors and drives their attention to the company. They can skim over the data and check the graphs and they will get the information they need in a quickest way. Coca-Cola uses colorful images, where youth with smiling face holding the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product to show the positive energy it is sharing throughout the world to its investors, the descriptive and powerful wording in its paragraphs under each part of its report, where it provides detailed explanation about its performance in the preceding year to make its message more convincing and understandable for investors, and lastly the company provides colorful graphic representation of its data to make it easier for an impatient reader, who prefer to extract key message quickly. I think Coca-Cola uses the most significant and beneficial strategies to drive the investorsÃ¢â¬â¢ attention to the company. The colorful images, strong wording, and descriptive graphic representation of its performance in its Annual report for 2012 makes it interesting and entertaining for its reader. How to cite Annual Report Summary, Papers
Saturday, December 7, 2019
Question: Discuss abouy theEducation Policies and Frameworks for Age Care. Answer: Differences Between FFSAC and EYLF Both the Early Years Learning Framework and the Framework for School Age Care describe the practices necessary in supporting and promoting the learning and development of children. However, they have some differences. One of the differences between EYLF and FFSAC is that they are meant for different age groups, the former being for children aged -0-5 years and the latter 6-12. Additionally, EYLF mainly focuses on brain development and play based learning for children. It aims at extending and enriching the learning of children from birth to five years of age as well as throughout the transition to school. On the other hand, FFSAC majors on enhancing the experience, development and well-being of school-aged children using planned leisure activities. It aims at extending and enriching the development and wellbeing of children who have attained the school age in care settings and education (Australia and Barblett 2006). How the ECACE links to one of the approved frameworks Leisure and play are crucial for the young childrens development, learning and wellbeing. This principle relates to FFSAC main objective of enhancing childrens development through leisure activities (Dowding and Martin2017) Part B Scenario 1 Legal obligations as an early childhood educator I would first confirm that Joshuas Mums friend is among the people allowed by Joshuas mum to pick him from school in her absentia. If not, Id contact her and refrain from releasing him to the Joshuas Mums friend. About the use of vulgar language and the bruises, I would report this to the necessary child protection authorities. Service policies and procedures I would refer to this scenario Mandatory reporting of child abuse. Child protection from any form of abuse or danger. Education and Care Services Regulations relevant to this scenario The safety and health of children. Standard 2.3: The protection of each child. Element 2.3.2: Reasonable steps should be put in place to protect children from injury, harm, or any hazard than can expose them to injury or harm. Element 2.3.4: coordinators, educators, and staff should be aware of their duties and responsibility to reach out to any child at risk of neglect or abuse (Armstrong, Armstrong and Barton 2016). Is it an ethical or a legal dilemma? It is an ethical dilemma since it does not relate to either sexual or physical abuse that requires mandatory report to relevant authorities by the law. In Saritas case, the child is not given proper attention by the parents. In this case, it is an ethical and moral requirement for Saritas parents to provide the baby with proper attention. Proper attention implies to the provision of basic needs like food, this is important for the baby given the fact that she is underweight and by opening the other childrens bag means she is hungry. Therefore, it is a moral obligation for the parents to take care of the child. How I would respond to such a situation Children like Sarita who are neglected need a nurturing and safe relationship that address the impact of child maltreatment. In this case, first thing I will do is to offer the child the proper attention needed. Second, since the child is under weight and hungry, I will arrange for the baby to be given food in proper proportions in order to correct her situation. Third, I would go an extra mile and report the case to the relevant authorities for appropriate action to be taken, whereby the child can be given to a caregiver who understands her needs. Finally, I would lobby for a school policy that provides free school meals to children who have difficulties having a decent meal at home. Areas from in relation to families that the educators undermined Children and their families should be supported and the teachers should respect the decisions made by the parents on their children. The educator should learn on how to respond and respect the uniqueness of each family in terms of culture, customs, structure, beliefs, language, and kinshipsystem. Respect families right to privacy and maintain confidentiality (Tayler, Ishmine, Cloney, Cleveland and Thorpe 2013) Services policies and procedures I would refer to in this situation Respect of family privacy and treating information with the appropriate levels of confidentiality and discretion. Respect the uniqueness and characteristics of various family backgrounds. Report any cases of breach of confidential information and the lack of respect to family privacy. Importance of sharing information about their behavior with the supervisor The educators failed to respect the privacy of this familys matters and continued laughing about it. Thus, they did not handle the information they knew with dignity and confidentiality as required. One of the educators did not respect the mothers decision to have a baby and went ahead to suggest that she could carry out other options instead. Therefore, they failed in their role as educators and violated fundamental principle. Advantage of supervisor raising and discussing policies that relate to this scenario in a staff meeting It would serve as a reminder to the involved educators together with the entire staff that it is important to respect family privacy and maintain confidentiality of sensitive information. Also, educators would be reminded of the importance of respect family backgrounds and treating such people with dignity. Reference List Armstrong, F., Armstrong, D. and Barton, L., 2016. Inclusive education: Policy, contexts and comparative perspectives. Routledge. Australia, E.C and Barblett, L., 2006. Early Childhood Australias code of ethics. Early Childhood Australia. Dowding, K. and Martin, A., 2017. Introduction. In policy Agendas in Australia (pp. 1-10). Springer International Publishing. Tayler, C., Ishmine, K., Cloney, D., Cleveland, G. and Thorpe, K., 2013. The quality of early childhood education and care services in Australia. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 38(2), p. 13.
Friday, November 29, 2019
Three rules for a good book The two books that I read this summer are: "California Blue" by David Klass, and "Mr. Tucket" by Gary Paulsen. "There are three rules for writing a good book. Unfortunately no one knows what they are". That quote was said by W. Somerset Maugham. Every Author has their own three rules. I came up with my own. The three rules that I think are the most important.
Monday, November 25, 2019
Gcse English Poetry Essays Gcse English Poetry Essay Gcse English Poetry Essay Essay Topic: W H auden Poems The two poems that I will be analysing are Stop all the Clocks by W. H. Auden and The Vet by Gillian Clarke. My discussion will be based on the theme of the poems and look at how the poets used form and language to help his readers understand and make meaning out of the poem. STOP ALL THE CLOCKS THEME The theme of this poem is about grief. The poet takes his readers through a simple but complex journey that explains the different stages of grief that a person feels when a loved one dies. The poem reveals the emotional upheaval that death can cause. The grief felt is carefully illustrated by the poet in the form and language he uses throughout the poem which has a strict rhyming scheme of AABB throughout the 4 stanzas. FORM AND LANGUAGE The form and language that was used by the poet to describe the feeling and mood of the bereaved was spread throughout. The first stanza simply showed the first stage of grief and that the bereaved is coming to terms with the death of a loved one. For example, he said stop all the clocks which signified that he wanted to focus on what had just happened and does not want to forget his love as people do over a period of time. : Again he said, cut off the telephone meaning he wanted to be alone without communicating to anyone. This is because she wanted to concentrate and grieve on the death of his loved one without people offering their condolences. Then the last line of the stanza, he said, bring out the coffin which suggests that he wanted to start making funeral plans. In the second stanza he wanted to let everyone know that his loved one has died and he mentioned in the first line, let aeroplane circle moaning overhead which means that he wanted everyone to join him in feeling the pain and grief he feels and that a great man had passed. In the second line he said, scribbling on the sky the message He Is Dead to acknowledge the tragic passing away of someone special in his life. Also there were inclusions of some metaphors such as crepe which suggests fragility of life and love, dove which signifies that he wants peace and traffic policemen which suggests that he wants order to prevail and justice be served. All these words were used to describe his feelings instead of using the direct feelings. The third stanza is very different from the previous two because the narrator gets personal with the readers by telling them what he meant to him. For example, in the first line he said, He was my North, my South, my East, and West. He started using a lot of commas which changes the rhythm of the poem. He slows down the pace at which he narrates and makes the readers focus on the pain he feels. There was a consistent repetition of my in the stanza because the narrator gets personal and reveals how much he hurts about the passing away of his loved one. A metaphor of compass which signified that he has lost direction in life as his beloved had died. He also talks about the times of day and days of the week that emphasises how much he had lost now he is dead. The last stanza is all about the anger and destructive character that the narrator adopts as his tone changes and he says the stars are not wanted now: put out every one; Pack up the moon and dismantle the sun. It signifies that he has lost his faith in romance. The last stanza emphasises finality because in the last line he said nothing can ever come to any good meaning he has lost faith in life and love and he has nothing to work for as it does not come to any good. THE VET The theme of The Vet is basically the unpleasant experience associated with conceiving. It is circulated around child that witnessed the birth of a baby calf. The poet tries to paint a picture in the mind of the readers of the painful procedure involved in delivering. The poet uses an Alliteration in the last stanza on the forth line gleaming, silver, sweet under the tongue.
Friday, November 22, 2019
Critically assess the contention that temperate forests are in equilibrium with climate - Essay Example librium with its climate by considering paleocological studies concerned with the effects of climate change to ancient forests as well as more recent studies of the ;problem of global warming and its effects on temperate forests. Do temperate forests exhibit stability in terms of cover, biodiversity and function in the carbon cycle? What is causing temperate forests to decline if it is indeed in equilibrium with climate? The article Ã¢â¬Å"Forests and climate changeÃ¢â¬ (FAO Corporate Document Repository) states that forests serve an important function in the environmental balance as a carbon pool. A carbon pool is the storage area where carbon dioxide is released or stored. The rate of exchange normally depends on the life cycle of the forest elements. Ideally, the forests are in a state of a perpetual carbon sink, which is defined as a system in which there is more carbon going in than out. Equally admirable is when the amount of carbon absorbed from the atmosphere is equal to the amount of carbon released back into the environment. Unfortunately, especially since the Industrial revolution, this balance has been upset to an increasing degree until the effects of the climate system imbalance has become too severe to be ignored. There have been several efforts in limiting, and hopefully eventually eradicating, this imbalance, with minimal success. One of the more seemingly ecologically correct notions is to implement forest management policies to preserve existing forests and to extend its area through afforestation. Dudley states the preservation of the old temperate forests would be of benefit to the ecology. However, he further implies that the establishment of newer, faster-growing but ecologically unfit forests would be detrimental to the cause of ecological salvaging. Temperate forests are found mainly in western and central Europe, the eastern side of North America and northeastern Asia. These are scattered all over the middle and high latitudes although
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Sincere believes about the morality of divorce will not influence God judgment of us as true believers - Research Paper Example Morals are rules or habits of conduct, especially sexual conduct, with reference to standards of right and wrong. They are concerned with the judgment of the goodness or badness of a human action, or the character of the individual in question. The issue arises from the fact that different people, and different organizations, have different definitions of what is right or wrong, good or bad, and the way that they interpret and act upon those definitions. Of the many great social issues in our time, one of the most often debated is the prevalence of divorce in society today; due to the immense influence of Christianity throughout history, with special reference into its heavy influences upon Western culture, this is doubly true, as the predominant views on the institution of marriage itself are due to the views provided in the Bible itself. The influences of Christianity on marriage may be seen in the vows themselves, as evidenced by the sample vows provided here: Ã¢â¬Å"With deepest joy I receive you into my life that together we may be one. As is Christ to His body, the church, so I will be to you a loving and faithful husband. Always will I perform my headship over you even as Christ does over meÃ¢â¬ (Bible.org,. 1995). ... So they are no longer two, but one. Therefore what God has joined together, let man not separateÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (New English Bible, 1963). Ephesians 5:22 states Ã¢â¬Å"Wives, submit to your husbands as to the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife as Christ is the head of the church, his body, of which he is the Savior. Now as the church submits to Christ, so also wives should submit to their husbands in everythingÃ¢â¬ (New English Bible, 1963). The concept of marriage is discussed so frequently, and so in depth in the Bible itself, that it is not surprising that in a country founded by Christians who were looking for an escape from religious persecution, the idea of divorce has become a hotly debated one. The traditional teachings of Christianity believed that divorce was wrong; according to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Ã¢â¬Å"divorce is a grave offense against the natural law. It claims to break the contract, to which the spouses freely consented, to live with ea ch other till death. Divorce does injury to the covenant of salvation; of which sacramental marriage is the signÃ¢â¬ ¦divorce is immoral also because it introduces disorder into the family and into societyÃ¢â¬ (Abbott, 2012). It was, and is, not just the Catholic Church that advocated for the immorality of divorce, for many Christians will also quote Matthew 19:9, which states Ã¢â¬Å"And I say to you: whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adulteryÃ¢â¬ (New English Bible, 1963); another commonly quoted verse is Luke 16:18, Ã¢â¬Å"Everyone who divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery, and he who marries a woman divorced from her husband commits adulteryÃ¢â¬ (New English Bible, 1963). While it is true that the teachings of Jesus allow for divorce under
Monday, November 18, 2019
Management planning and control system - Essay Example So as to avert the frauds and errors, the modern business world has developed some potential tools. These tools include accounting techniques and control systems such as internal check system. According to Macintosh Ã¢â¬Å"accounting and control systems can and do play a critical role in defining the moral constitution of an organisationÃ¢â¬ (1994, p.174). In order to better understand this statement, it is essential to evaluate control systems and accounting techniques separately. This paper will evaluate the efficacy of such tools in defining the ethical status of an organization. Impacts of control systems on organization In the opinion of Basu (2009, p. 4.13), internal check can be defined as an arrangement of staff duties whereby no person is allowed to deal with the entire process of a transaction. As a result of this practice, every record is checked by several persons so as to ensure the accuracy of the book of accounts. This method would also assist the organisation to de tect errors and frauds that already committed by accounting clerks. Since employees are not permitted to deal with a transaction from beginning to end, their unfair practices would be detected in subsequent checks if they have committed any. When such a practice is being exercised in an organisation, the employees will be very cautious about the fair maintenance of accounts. This careful account preparation minimises the elements of errors to a large extent. At the same time, the fear about detection of frauds and thereby compulsory job termination would persuade employees to treat organisational documents genuinely. Nowadays, majority organisations practice this type of internal control system in order to increase the reliability of their financial information. In short, control systems and thereby the feeling of being discovered would aid the organisation to exercise moral pressure over its employees. Impacts of accounting on organization If control systems are employed to put a c heck to errors and frauds, the accounting procedures mainly propose to identify elements have already been committed. At the same time, it must be noted that control techniques are part of a well formulated accounting system. According to American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), accounting is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the art of recording, classifying, and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events which are, in part at least, of financial character, and interpreting the results thereofÃ¢â¬ (as cited in Jon, 2008). Although, the basic components of accounting such as journalising and posting are carried out in a day to day manner, the final accounts are prepared at the end of the financial year. The final financial statement provides the state of affairs of the business, and on the strength of this report; it is possible to verify the book balances with actual business status. If any difference is identified between book value an d actual value, the concerned accounting clerks are held liable to compensate the detected damages. This procedure also puts some moral pressure over employees to keep the accounts accurately and sincerely. In the opinion of Roy (n.d.), forensic accounting is the recently introduced branch of accounting that can be effectively employed to deal with errors and frauds. Under this system, the firms treat all
Saturday, November 16, 2019
The New England Colonial Period Tony Calloway Discussion Question 1. According to the article, With All the Grace of the Sex, were women active participants in colonial trade? How and why? Women had to be active participants in a colonial trade. I mean most of these women, displayed a matter of filling empty holes in their lives. There were widowed spouses or empty professions within the community. The With All The Grace of Sex article addresses of all practice of manual trade being performed by women because not all wanted to sew or cook. Some had no choice but to do the labor of a profession those others saw as a mans job. Those are jobs typically family responsibilities with everyone playing some duty within the trade. Many of the women did not need men to run the businesses. A lot of the women grew to be champions of these professions out of necessity. The only way there was clear evidence that women did work in these occupations, were the occasional discovery of documentation that has been maintained showing these evidence. Furthermore, within this literature, we would notice how frequently women were becoming apprentices and masters of trades alongside their male counterparts. Granted; the manual labor associated with various occupations, it was a wonder the existence of women apprentice and masters that were in questioned. Men that use forges, hammers and leather working tools had put some the best men to the test. To have the stamina and physical courage these women needed to prove themselves was very impressive. Like my dad use to say do not put tomorrow what can be done today. After reading the article, it would seem that women had to do what they had to do. However, that is the binary of the way women have been for a since the beginning of time. Lesson 3 1. The article, Deaths Head, Cherub, Urn and Willow and the images of the early American grave art give us insight to life during the New England colonial period. How had the views of religion and death changed over the time period, 1720 to 1820? How were these changes reflected on the gravestones? What specifically can historians learn about the Puritan from these stones Jim Deetz Edwin Dethlefsen (1960s-70s) Are two archeologicalist that studied on New England gravestones Identification of 3 main motifs in period 1680-1820. These were the Winged Deaths Head 1680-1780, the Winged Cherub 1760-1800, and Urn Willow 1770-1820. In the 17th and 18th century gravestones in Massachusetts were decorated with a traditional set of designs that have distinctive spatial and temporal limits. The pioneering gravestones in Bostons burying grounds were simple, roughly cut greenstone markers. Individual headstones bared short or no beautifying carving and often had little inscriptions, which ordinarily had a person name, and theyre the date of death. The writings interruptive punctuation, were like a encrypted carving style with a characterized raised period separating the word. Treating them as if they were archaeological phenomena, one can demonstrate and test methods of inferring diffusion, dedication and the culture that carved it. The Early popularity of Death s head design displayed the Puritans attitudes, and Urn Motifs indicated the breakdown of these values. While cherubs appear most premature among an urban innovation society in Cambridge, They remain a nearly insignificant type in this central area but are rapidly being embraced in outer districts further removed from the center of influence. Imperfect reproduction of distinct design gives rise to distinctive local styles of other districts. The delivery of these local forms in time and space presents further insights regarding the religious difference in the Colonial period, including a clear indication of how this change progressed in different geographical areas at different times. The appearance that draws archeologists the most when it comes to Puritan headstones is the uniform appearance of the three types (Deaths Head, Cherub, Urn, and Willow). The Deaths Head representation was very common early on through the 17th century. It was a type that Puritans used to emphasize the mortality of man moreover. However, after the Great Awakening and the spread of the belief in an immortal soul, the Cherub became the more popular type. The Cherub image symbolized resurrection. During the 18th and 19th centuries, right after the revival of the Greek in America, the Urn and Willow grew to be a regularly used motif on tombstones. The quality of the monument was dependent upon two factors, the skill of the stonecutter and the budget of the family. In Boston, stonecutters were also masons, woodcarvers, bricklayers and even farmers carved gravestones as another way of sustaining their families. On numerous occasions, to save money and to deliver a high-quality headstone with fine art and speed, many of the Stonecutters made prefabricated headstones. This way all they would do was insert the name and date of the deceased upon placement of order. It wouldnt take much to seek out this fantastic artwork that can be found in many places in New England to include Copps Hill in Boston the old Freedom Trail, and another favorite spot to Bostonians the Old Burying Point in Salem Massachusetts. Grave markers and the burial grounds in which they are found have become identified as having historical importance, and they have familiarized their topics for research. The traditional cultures, a grave marker serves partly a function of commemoration as well as an indicator of status. To an archeologist, these markers serve as original recordings linking to the departed individuals living as well as, a more comprehensive sense, to the society in which the individual lived and ultimately died. New Jersey can also provide some eighteenth-century grave markers like the ones in Monmouth County. These stones can give some insights into the developmental years of the colony. Although Monmouth County does share the timeline within many similarities of the colonial New England gravestone carving tradition, it also displays significant differences. Hereabouts, the choice of the gravestone in Monmouth County held related to personal inclinations within the broader trends before classified i n New England. However, with the more inquisitive minds; studying gravestones can easily part into disciplines like a historical archaeology, or even like this class art history, even a genealogist when the training is more focused on the individual family. Particular scientific archaeological studies of colonial gravestones were sparked into motion by the outstanding research by James Deetz and Edwin Dethlefsen as before mentioned, who studied within the Boston Massachusetts area. Their conclusions presented a temporally linear course of iconographic designs used in the local carving tradition; starting with stark mortality symbols such as deaths heads, with more hopeful cherubs in the early eighteenth century, and then forming the more profane, neoclassical urn and willow tree designs. Another type of style was the motif, which was used on Bostons seventeenth-century grave markers dubbed the deaths head. Deaths head, often including wings and crossed bones, is a stylized skull that is used by todays motorcycle gangs and gothic. Although folks were thinking that winged skulls been designed to symbolize physical death and spiritual regeneration this was not the case. It is essential to note that Boston-based Puritans were not advocates of using holy symbols, like cherubs, crosses in the place of meeting, of silver, or on their headstones. Puritans were adamantly opposed to connecting the human form to spiritual beings such as God, angels, or spirits. The deaths head, which in its right, is a non-religious symbol and was the first description applied to gravestone carving. Additional decorative motifs following the deaths head were the hourglass with wings symbolizing the concept time flies, elaborately carved on the side panels along with florets, finials, foliage, fruit, and imp-and-dragon figures. The seventeenth and eighteenth-century headstones had solemn inscriptions that inspired passers-by to contemplate mortality and the temporary nature of life on earth. There must have a broad range of the deaths head motif. The features and arrangement of the image depended uniquely on the preferred style of the carver. Those creating their style of carving like silversmiths, tanners, carpenters, and other artisans, gravestone carvers had specific techniques and skills. The style was almost like a calling card for some. Through inquiry research, newspaper and ads, announcements, signed or initialed stones, ledger books, and other original reference materials, twentieth-century historians were able to recognize many of these makers. As the immigrants began to reach a more stable lifestyle and acquire wealth, they were better able to afford more extravagant personal items whichever could serve as representations of their socioeconomic status. Individual belongings could have extended from a broader, more pretentious house; a cabinet full of silver plates imported from China to large lavishly engraved gravestones. Lesson 3 Discussion Question 1. How did the Northern demography differ from that of the Southern colonies? Compare and contrast the social, economic, gender, and racial hierarchy of the New England and Southern Colonies. During the mid-1700s, there was an influx of immigrants migrating to America. During this time there was an abundance of food to go around, and that allowed for a generally good health of the majority of the colonist. By which it would allow more women to reproduce and share a low mortality rate, with the help ladies having several or more children during their life. With this expansion became the love of social class and hierarchy. The North school system celebrated and embraced social mobility, and the entrance of newly prosperous planters, commercial farmers, and retailers into the upper ranks was not only likely but also common. (Faragher 2012) While there was a well-established upper class in the Northern Colonies, there was also the scant and poverty-stricken lower class as well. It was composed of slaves, bound servants, and the poor laborers. This group made little less than half of the Northern colonies population, and their standard of living was just above minimum subsiste nce. While both the Northern and the Southern colonies each had their hierarchy system, and they were similar in ways yet different in others. In Southern colonies, the standards needed for social status was racial purity. These ethnic pure Spanish colonists held the top of the social ladder. Spanish of mixed ancestry were in the middle and Indians, and African slaves were placed at the bottom. Though there was strife for nonwhites in the north, the separation of lines was obscured. The colonist had possibilities to move up or down the ladder at their will. Biracial Northern colonist experienced much more opportunity compared to their Southern counterparts. The Northern upper class was typically made up of landowners, merchants, and prosperous professionals. These upper class Northerners were living a much more lavish and extravagant life than the upper class Southern colonist. References Deetz, J., Dethlefsen, E. S. (2007). Deaths Head, Cherub, Urn and Willow. Retrieved from http://www.histarch.illinois.edu/plymouth/deathshead.html Faragher, J. M., Buhle, M. J., Czitrom, D., Armitage, S. H. (2012). Out Of Many A History of the American People (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson. Howe, J. (1998). Greek Revival. Retrieved from http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/fa267/greekrev.html Revolutionary Windsor. (n.d.). https://sites.google.com/a/windsorct.org/revolutionary_windsor/home/gravestones-puritanism Wooodard, D. D., Doody, D. (). With All the Grace of the Sex. Retrieved from http://www.history.org/Foundation/journal/Spring04/women.cfm
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Plagiarism and the Internet Premarital sexual activity and drug and alcohol use are high in the list of problems in schools and universities today. Equally as severe is plagiarism, the act of taking credit for another person words or ideas. Plagiarism is a major problem in educational institutions. There are reasons for this action, the Ã ¡Ã easyÃ ¡ÃÅ" way out of writing assignments and projects. However, there are also ways to remedy the situation. Thus, plagiarism is a problem, but it is possible through education to substantially lower its use. Students rationalize entirely too much when it comes to essays and other assignments. Whether it is poor time management or lack of incentive, plagiarism is always wrong. Not only is taking another personÃ ¦Ã s thoughts not moral, but it is punishable by law. It is a serious offense. Pupils plagiarize because it is virtually effortless. With the Internet both available everywhere and used as a daily necessity, there is a plethora of information at oneÃ ¦Ã s fingertips. Also, students find that plagiarism is not addressed as a serious problem because it is often undetected, much less punished. These reasons encompass the motives behind plagiarism. The situation isnÃ ¦Ã t entirely hopeless, however. Education is the key to decreasing the thirty-six percent of college students who confess to plagiarizing papers and other such materials (Paradigms 1). One way to educate is to inform students of the Copyright Act and of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. The former states that fair uses are not an infringement of copyright (Loren 4). A fair use refers to uses such as reports, essays, and research in which a source is properly cited. The Digital Millenium Copyright Act provides for copyright owners who believe that their material on the Internet is breaching their rights (Loren 4). Both of these laws have severe consequences. If educators familiarized their students with these, then plagiarism would decrease inversely with the understanding of the severity of the act. Teachers must make this effort, just as students must make their own effort to do their own work. Also, teachers ought to enforce discipline when it co mes to a violation like plagiarism and create an association between plagiarism and punishment, not plagiarism and indifference. This is how plagiarism should be dealt with in the classroom. An omnipresent situation in schools today is plagiarism.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Geography November 29, 2010 Dire Predictions : Student Edition Chapter one of Dire Predictions Understanding Global Warming does exactly like the title says, it gives the reader the essential basics of understanding the Global Warming issue. Chapter one gives essential information covering a wide range of things including: the natural and human impacts on climate, definition of a greenhouse gas and how it affects temperature, positive and negative feedback loops, threatening human byproducts that affect the ozone, ways scientists study ancient climates, and it gives possible future Earth outcomes due to global warming.It is a really loaded chapter I know, but this information proves to be very valuable when learning about global warming. In fact, the information is so valuable that it canÃ¢â¬â¢t be covered by just stating a quick overview of the chapter, but needs a more detailed summary. Some natural variables that potentially affect the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s climate include the sun, vol canic eruptions, and EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s orbit. But how exactly does something like a volcanic eruption effect climate?This is because Ã¢â¬Å"Explosive volcanic eruptions modify the composition of the atmosphere by injecting small particles called aerosols into the atmosphere layer. Ã¢â¬ These released aerosols block the solar radiation that would have reached EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface and consequently, it has cooling effect on EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface. The more talked about topic in chapter one however is the non-natural, or human induced impacts causing global warming. Humans burning of fossil fuels and release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCÃ¢â¬â¢s) are both examples of human variables that affect global warming.CFCÃ¢â¬â¢s are a kind of gas that is released by cooling apparatusÃ¢â¬â¢ such as the refrigerator. These gasses have been proven to destroy the ozone. Furthermore, the book goes on to prove that the major impacts causing global warming are not natural but mostly human made. It states that the hole in the ozone is not mostly caused by a natural increase in CO2 gasses but the release of CFC-11 and CFC-12 gasses by humans into the environment. As proof of the gasses affect on the ozone it states that the average temperature of the globe has gone up from 13. degrees Celsius to 14. 5 degrees Celsius. It seems like a small amount of temperature increase but even one degree average increase can have a major influence on global warming. Finally, chapter one goes on to describe what happens if these patterns persist. So what will happen if these patterns persist, and what effects will it have on agriculture and man? To better understand what will happen to us, we have to understand what the ozone layer does. The ozone layer protects us from harmful ultraviolet radiation.If these patterns persist the ozone will protect less and less ultraviolet radiation from entering EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere. If this happens then the ice caps will melt which will be catastrophic to man and agriculture. According to http://www. tropical-rainforest-animals. com/Global-Warming-Effects. html some effects of global warming will be: Floods Droughts, Heat waves, Extreme winter cold and snow fall, Tornadoes, Extreme storms, Tropical cyclones, hurricanes, and typhoons. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be a geography major to know that these types of effects will deal a devastating blow to people and plants.Precipitation patterns will also change everywhere, messing up normal agricultural growth. Some more effects global warming will have on agriculture and animals is it will make trees produce leaves earlier, it will cause earlier greening on vegetation, it causes re-distributions of algae that will kill animals that eat it to survive, and the ultraviolet radiation will ultimately poison humans and animals and destroy plants everywhere. If we have no ozone life will be unsustainable on Earth. But wait, all these horrible things donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to happen; we can do things to prevent global warming.We can start to help this not to happen by burning up less fossil fuels, thus reducing emissions into the ozone. Scientists and mechanics have recently been working together to make cars that produce less waste and are better for the environment. We can help by buying these kinds of cars and investing in this type of research. Another way to help is if we as a world unite and we set goals and laws that require fewer emissions from each country. Also, it may seem small but a way we can all help is by recycling things which cuts down the waste it takes to make whole new things.More ways you can help are by: using less air conditioning and heat, changing light bulbs to more energy efficient ones, buying energy efficient products, driving less or carpooling, using less hot water, and finally planting a tree. Although planting a tree or changing a light bulb may seem like a small way to help, if everyone in the world followed these suggestions emissions would b e greatly reduced which could save the Earth. Scientists have worked together to try to understand the problem.By constantly recording new data and looking at old data they have come to a better understanding of what we use that causes these emissions and the way it affects us and our planet. A way scientists have studied the ancient atmosphere is by drilling into the ice caps and examining the trapped air. Also scientists are constantly observing the ozone layer to see any changes that might come. Scientists also look at what kind of molecules the ozone is made of and gasses that could destroy it. Learning about the problem is half the battle so we are on our way to a brighter tomorrow.I think the information given in the book was good information based on scientific truths. The information in this book was very easy to follow as almost every page had a corresponding graph or picture to help you understand the information given. However one of the problems I had with the informatio n in this book is I felt that it was really quick to discredit the other side of the argument with not much detail. When faced with an opposing point the author just basically says that all other views are wrong and moves on.Also, the information in this book jumped to something completely different every other page. But that being said I did learn a lot from reading this book. The thing I found most interesting in the book were some of the statistics given throughout the chapter. For example thought how long the gasses CFC-11 and CFC-12 last and how much more potent it is that carbon dioxide. Even after five hundred years after CFC-12 is released, it is still 5,200 times more potent than carbon dioxide. And five hundred years after CFC-11 is released, it is 1,620 times more potent that the carbon dioxide (Dire Predictions, p. 9). With CFC gasses and other harmful gasses lasting this long it is important to stop the release of these harmful gasses as soon as we can. Another thing I found interesting in the book was the change in Mount Kilimanjaro snow coverage over time. First, it shows Mount Kilimanjaro during the year 1912 and it is covered in snow. That picture is followed by a picture of Mount Kilimanjaro during the year 2007, and the snow cover has almost all disappeared. Another statistic I found very interesting in chapter one is the graphs on page thirty-three.These graphs show the amount of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere before and up to 2005. The graphs show that the levels of these greenhouse gasses are pretty constant until it reaches the year 2005; When the graph line representing the gasses reaches to just before the year 2005, levels of all three of these gasses skyrocket. (Dire Predictions, pg. 33) Reading this book made me realize how serious the global warming issue is and how it is already affecting the world today. Due to global warming life as we know it could possibly come to an end.But donÃ¢â¬â¢t start put ting your bucket list together just yet. If we start doing things everyday to help reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses we can make sure that tomorrow is a brighter day, figuratively that is. The things stated earlier (using less air conditioning and heat, changing light bulbs to more energy efficient ones, buying energy efficient products, driving less or carpooling, using less hot water, planting trees) are all examples of everyday things we can do to help the environment and stop global warming.Another thing that people can do to help this problem is by educating themselves about global warming. By educating yourself about global warming you can solve the problem easier because you know the causes. Also you can educate other people about the importance of taking global warming into consideration. If everyone around the world pitches in to try to help, maybe the next book we read will be Optimistic Predictions.Works Cited Banerjee, Subhankar. Ã¢â¬Å"Global Warming. Ã¢â¬ New York Times. 6 Oct. 2010. Mann, Michael E. , and Lee R. Kump. Dire Predictions: Understanding Global Warming. New York, NY: DK Pub. , 2009. Print. May, Elizabeth, and Zoe? Caron. Global warming for dummies . Mississauga, ON: J. Wiley & Sons Canada, 2009. Print. Nodvin, Stephen C. Ã¢â¬Å"Global Warming. Ã¢â¬ encyclopedia of earth. 9 May. 2010. 29 Nov. 2010. . Yeatman, William. Ã¢â¬Å"Global Warming: Solutions/Cost/Science GlobalWarming. orgÃ |Ã ArchiveÃ |Ã Global Warming 101 . Ã¢â¬ Global Warming . N. p. , 9 Feb. 2009. Web. 29 Nov. 2010. .
Saturday, November 9, 2019
20 Narrative Essay Topics on Nuclear Corrosion Writing intelligently about nuclear power, its history and the role it has played in shaping the human environment as we know it, is a technical task that comes with a lot of research which could be quite challenging to the average student. Therefore, understanding aspects of nuclear corrosion in order to select a topic to write on will help you order your thoughts and apply yourself constructively during the research phase. To overcome the mentioned difficulties above, this article will focus on providing the reader with 20 exciting topics on nuclear material corrosion that can serve as your inspiration, as well as a sample narrative essay which will be written using one of the topics on the list below as its guide. But before going ahead with the list, here is a brief outline of the concept of nuclear corrosion; nuclear corrosion is the corroding of metallic materials used in a nuclear plant due to external influences. Severe corrosion can lead to nuclear accidents and has been responsible for some of the nuclear disasters man has experienced in the 20th century. 20 Interesting Narrative Essay Topics on Nuclear Corrosion: Material Corrosion in Nuclear Plants and its Economic Effects Effective Methods in Mitigating the Possibility of Nuclear Corrosion Making a Case for the Use of Corrosion Resistant Metals in Nuclear Power Plants Exploring the Role of Corrosion Resistant Metals as Safety Nets in Nuclear Plants Exploring the different Types of Nuclear Corrosion and their Causes Stress Controlled Cracking and its Effects on Nuclear Materials Environmentally Assisted Cracking Effects on Nuclear Materials Irradiation-assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking in Nuclear Power Plants Microbiologically Assisted Cracking and Why They Occur in Nuclear Power Plants Discussing the Different Techniques for Combating Nuclear Material Corrosion A History of Security Measures for Nuclear Power Plants in the United States Securing the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s Environment by Effective Nuclear Waste Disposal Policies Analyzing Nuclear Waste Disposal Deficiencies and their Harmful Effects Nuclear Corrosion: the Trade-off between Disaster and Economic Growth The Effects of Nuclear Corrosion on the Ecosystem How Secure are Nuclear Power Plants: An Objective Analysis of the Nuclear Industry The Economic Benefits of Nuclear Power and Corrosion Mitigation Discussing Next-generation Nuclear SystemÃ¢â¬â¢s Impact on Nuclear Corrosion Mitigating Nuclear Material Corrosion through the Use of Control Policies Investigating the Use of Corrosion Resistant Metal Alloys in Mitigating Nuclear Accidents Now that you have your narrative essay topics, the next step is developing your essay by making use of facts and figures to investigate, discuss or explain your position on nuclear corrosion. In order to help you do this, a sample narrative essay will be written using one of the topics on the list. This will serve as a simple guide for students on essay writing. Sample Essay: Material Corrosion in Nuclear Plants and its Economic Effects During the building of a nuclear power plants, diverse metal and metal alloys are made use of in building nuclear reactors and cores. These metals and alloys are susceptible to corrosion and in situations when metals become corroded; the entire nuclear plant becomes compromised with far-reaching economic effects. My essay will attempt to explore the economic effects of nuclear corrosion in the United States as well as worldwide. Nuclear corrosion is when external sources which can be environmental cause the metallic materials used in a nuclear plant to corrode. If this corrosion remains unchecked and becomes widespread, the chances of radioactive gasses escaping into the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere are greatly increased. Sadly, throughout the history of the nuclear industry, corrosion in nuclear plants has been left unchecked and this has led to nuclear disasters in countries such as the former Soviet Union and the United States. When such accident occur, it damages the environment and lead to excessive capital expenditure to clean up radiation spills or man exclusive zones such as Chernobyl were security guards are kept around its perimeter round the clock. Mitigating these risks and managing corrosion is a very expensive responsibility. Statistics show that the United States spends approximately $20billion to manage issues due to corrosion in its nuclear materials. While in Russia, the spending figures to manage corrosion from its defense department is approximately $10billion annually. The activities that make up this amounts come from paying regulators who inspect nuclear plants round the clock, as well as constantly changing materials that show sign of corrosion. Other statistics which take into consideration the cost of managing nuclear corrosion in all sectors of a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy are quite unbelievable. In first world countries- Japan, Russia, United States- where nuclear energy is used in various capacities, the total cost of managing nuclear corrosion covers a 3rd of these nationÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP annually. In the Us, $276billion is spent annually to manage corrosion and the approximately 100 nuclear plants in the country. It is also important to note that the figures listed above cover only the direct costs of corrosion in nuclear plants. Studies also show that corrosion has its indirect costs which are due power outages, delays, litigations and overhead costs. Taking these indirect expenses into consideration, the number rises to approximately $552billion spent annually as a result of corrosion in the United States. Breaking these figures further into the industries responsible for such expenditure we have; infrastructural expenses costing approximately $22.6billion yearly, utilities at $47billion and production and manufacturing industry at $17.6billion. In conclusion, it is important to note that even though maintaining nuclear plants and corrosion is an expensive process, these measures are required to eliminate future nuclear disasters. Today, nuclear energy scientist are continuously working to set policies and best practice methods to predict corrosion and building new-age nuclear systems which will drastically reduce the expenses the nuclear industry generates. Here we come to the end of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s guide on writing an original narrative essay on nuclear corrosion. We would also like you to note that further reading materials such as this article on 10 facts for a narrative essay on nuclear corrosion coupled with an article on how to write a narrative essay on nuclear corrosion are complementary materials we believe you should read. References: King, F. (2009). Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion of Nuclear Waste Containers. Corrosion, 65(4), pp.233-251. Saji, G. (2013). Chemico-physical causes of Radiation-induced Ã¢â¬Å"Long-cellÃ¢â¬ Action Corrosion in Water-cooled Reactors. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 256, pp.102-116. Cox, B. (1962). Causes of a Second Transition Point Occurring During Oxidation of Zirconium Alloys. Corrosion, 18(1), pp.33t-36t. Feron, D. (2011). Nuclear Corrosion Science and Engineering, Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, 58(4). Maiya, P. Shack, W. Kassner, T. (1990). Stress Corrosion Cracking of Candidate Material for Nuclear Waste Containers Pg 46(12), pp.954-963. Copson, H. Berry, W. (1960). Qualification of Inconel for Nuclear Power Plant Application 16(2), pp.79t-85t. Gong, Y., Yang, Z. and Yuan, J. (2011). Failure Analysis of Leakage on Titanium Tubes within Heat Exchangers in a Nuclear Power Plant. Part II: Mechanical Degradation. Materials and Corrosion, 63(1), pp.18-28.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
The History and Importance of the Vacuum Tube A vacuum tube, also called an electron tube, is a sealed-glass or metal-ceramic enclosure used in electronic circuitry to control the flow of electrons between the metal electrodes sealed inside the tubes. The air inside the tubes is removed by a vacuum. Vacuum tubes are used for amplification of a weak current, rectification of an alternating current to direct current (AC to DC), generation of oscillating radio-frequency (RF) power for radio and radar, and more. According to PV Scientific Instruments, The earliest forms of such tubes appeared in the late 17th century. However, it was not until the 1850s that sufficient technology existed to produce sophisticated versions of such tubes. This technology included efficient vacuum pumps, advanced glassblowing techniques, and the Ruhmkorff induction coil. Vacuum tubes were used widely in electronics in the early twentieth century, and the cathode-ray tube remained in use for televisions and video monitors before being supplanted by plasma, LCD, and other technologies. Timeline In 1875, American, G.R. Carey invented the phototube.In 1878, Englishman Sir William Crookes invented the Crookes tube, an early prototype of the cathode-ray tube.In 1895, German, Wilhelm Roentgen invented an early prototype Xray tube.In 1897, German, Karl Ferdinand Braun invents the cathode ray tube oscilloscope.In 1904, John Ambrose Fleming invented the first practical electron tube called the Fleming Valve. Leming invents the vacuum tube diode.In 1906, Lee de Forest invented the Audion later called the triode, an improvement on the Fleming Valve tube.In 1913, William D. Coolidge invented the Coolidge Tube, the first practical Xray tube.In 1920, RCA began the first commercial electron tube manufacturing.In 1921, American Albert Hull invented the magnetron electronic vacuum tube.In 1922, Philo T. Farnsworth develops the first tube scanning system for television.In 1923, Vladimir K Zworykin invented the iconoscope or the cathode-ray tube and the kinescope.In 1926, Hull and Williams c o-invented the tetrode electronic vacuum tube. In 1938, Americans Russell and Sigurd Varian co-invented the klystron tube.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Manufacturing Industry Evaluation - Research Paper Example 1.6 percent, 51.1 percent and 75.5 percent for the fluid milk industry, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s and girlÃ¢â¬â¢s cut and sew dresses and the envelopes industries, and the electronics computers industries, respectively. According to this census, the level of competition for the fluid milk, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s and girlÃ¢â¬â¢s cut and sew dresses, envelopes is highest for fluid milk and envelopes considering that Herfindahl Hirschman index for 50 largest companies is 1060, 829.9 and 185.5, respectively. The level of competition for the electronic computers industry is extremely high, considering that the Herfindahl Hirschman index for 50 largest companies is one of the highest at 2662.0. This reveals that the level of competition is lowest in the envelopes industry, whose Herfindahl Hirschman index for 50 largest companies is the lowest at 185.5, respectively. Oligopolies can be defined as industries whereby there are a small number of sellers or competitors. According to this definition, some of the listed industries that qualify as oligopolists include the envelope industry and the fluid milk manufacturing, whereby there are only 166 and 315 companies in the industries, a small number of industries in consideration of the other industries that have large number of competitors. The electronic computer manufacturing industry, for example, has 465 competitors or member companies. This means that the industry cannot be described as an oligopoly, rather, as an industry that is experiencing perfect competition. Some of the firms that operate in these industries are listed below. In the envelope industry, these firms include Warren De La Rue and Edwin Hill. In the fluid milk manufacturing, these companies include the Elmhurst Dairy, Inc., the Southeast Milk Inc., the Oberweis Dairy, the Dairy Dynamics, LLC, and the Rutter Bros Dairy, Inc (McEa chern, 2012). According to the definition of oligopolies above, one is bound to think that oligopolies are always bad for society. However, the listed
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Consumer Behaviour - Assignment Example Consumer Behaviour The term consumer behavior is simply the behavior that consumers display in searching, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of services and products that they think will satisfy their wants and needs. Consumer behavior centers at how individuals make decisions to use or spend their available resources, that is, time effort or money on consumption linked items. This simply means what they buy, where they buy it, when they purchase it, how often they utilize or use it, how they analyze it after they buy it and the impact of evaluating it in future and lastly, the way they dispose of it. In other words, consumer behavior can be used to refer to the behavior of individuals in regard to acquisition, utilization, and disposal of products, ideas, services or experiences. Acquisition and use of information are also included in consumer behavior. This means that, communicating with consumers and getting feedbacks from them forms a crucial and important part to marketers. Importance of studying customersÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior Studying consumer behavior is very significant in our lives. It plays a very crucial role in our daily activities. Every body spends a lot of time in market places and other places shopping different items. Before doing any transaction, everybody must make a decision. This shows that, consumer behavior cannot be avoided in our lives. It also plays a crucial role in marketing. Understanding consumer behavior is important in successful delivery of firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ offerings in market places. ... This is analysis and evaluation of trends and conditions in market places to understand consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs that are not fully met. Here, it is useful in identifying the weaknesses and developing these weaknesses to meet consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction. Consumer behavior is also used in Target Market Selection. This is identifying different groupings of consumers who have needs and wants that are unique and segment selection that matches the strengths of the firm. It analyses all this and then offer better chances and opportunities. Consumer behavior also involves Marketing Mix Destination. This is development and implementation of strategies for delivering effective combination of different features of satisfying wants to consumers within target market. Marketing mix is made up of four components, namely; place, promotion, price and product. Each and every person has his or her own way of perceiving or understanding things. Cognition and affect are one and same (Chisnall, 1995). Understanding of marketing strategy is also part of consumer behavior. Strategies used in marketing as well as the tactics are based on beliefs about consumer behavior. These beliefs can either be implicit or explicit. Not to forget, regulatory policy needs wide knowledge of consumer behavior. In addition, understanding of consumer behavior will also be incredibly useful in social marketing. Social marketing is use of marketing tactics and strategies to create or alter behaviors that have constructive effects on the target individuals and the society. It is used to increase sound environmental behaviors and to reduce vices like smoking. It is also used to improve support of charities and reduction of behaviors leading to HIV/AIDS. Evaluation of attitude According to Olson and Peter, analyzing
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Week 1 H - Essay Example Time stamps are vital in supporting multiple authentications that lack multiple requests in an authentication server (Coulouris, Dollimore & Kindberg 2006, p.550). In Kerberos protocol, timestamps are useful as nonceÃ¢â¬â¢s preventing dependence of synchronized clocks. The use of timestamps with Kerberos demonstrates a protocol that utilizes four messages to perform identification. Utilization of time stamps ensures removal of messages in the process of decreasing the message number in the requirement for authentication (Coulouris, Dollimore & Kindberg 2006, p.551). Use of timestamps may support single way identification especially, when a communication server operating in a single direction is evident (Anderson, 2008). The design of Kerberos serves as a reducer of state at the final server; the use of the time stamps ensures avoidance of per-connection (Anderson, 2008). Time stamps are sufficient in the case of protocols that do not compose of states. Timestamps provides a basis for proper server operation because it is not mandatory for the server to remain in an active state while in wait for message reception (Coulouris, Dollimore & Kindberg, 2006). Making the window narrow is vital in ensuring reduction of impending states. A timestamp can be in use as a nonce where client generation is a need. Timestamps is fundamental in Kerberos protocol because they enhance fresh conveyance of messages from the client to the final server. Utilizing timestamps as nonce is fundamental because it maintains security of the recognition protocol (Anderson, 2008). The use of Kerberos with the timestamps ensures regulation of access time to prevent eavesdropping. Eavesdropping allows unknown individuals to gain access to systems by acquiring vital information such consisting passwords. Kerberos ensures secure network where pretense becomes difficult (Anderson, 2008). A secure protocol will
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
A Brief History of the Hybrid Vehicle Essay First built in the early 1900s by inventors tinkering with combinations of the electric motor and the gasoline engine, hybrid vehicles were dropped when gasoline-fueled vehicles became more reliable and easier to start, and gasoline fuel more readily available. Research and development of hybrid vehicles was revived by concern about oil dependency in the1970s and about air pollution in the late 1980s. A number of hybrid vehicles have been built and tested since 1980. Some of these vehicles have impressed analysts with their performance and low levels of exhaust and petroleum consumption. Interest in hybrid vehicles jumped in late 1993 with the announcement of funding for two major collaborations. The US Department of Energy signed a five-year, $138 million development agreement with General Motors and a $122 million agreement with Ford to design and build preproduction hybrid prototypes that could be marketed in less than 10 years.  All these were done because hybrid electric vehicles are expected to be the future of vehicles worldwide. Definition One considers a vehicle to be a hybrid when it combines two or more sources of power. For example, a mo-ped (a motorized pedal bike) is a hybrid because it combines the power of a gasoline engine with the pedal power of its rider. Similarly, the gasoline-electric hybrid car is a combination of both an electric car and a gasoline-powered one. That is, it makes use of both electricity and gasoline to provide the energy to turn the wheels of the car. Figure 1 shows a gas-powered car.  Components Of A Gasoline Powered Car The 4-cylinder engine converts gasoline into motion so that the car can move. The easiest way it does this is to burn the gasoline inside the engine. Therefore is acts as an internal combustion engine i. e. combustion takes place internally. Gasoline powered car engines typically have over 100 horsepower and operate at speeds up to 8000 RPM. The fuel tank stores and supplies gasoline to the engine. It can typically store enough fuel to provide the engine with energy capable of moving the car through a distance of 300 miles or more. Figure 2 below shows an electric car, which has a set of batteries that provides electricity to an electric motor. The motor turns a transmission, and the transmission turns the wheels.  Components Of An Electric Car The batteries store and provide energy to the electric motor in an electric car just as the fuel tank does for the engine in a gasoline powered car. It usually gives the car a range of 50 100 miles which is much less than that typically provided by a fuel tank (300 miles). The electric motor is the device that provides motion in an electric car. It converts the energy it receives from the batteries into motion which is used to turn a transmission which then in turn rotates the wheels. It is able to spin up to 15000 RPM and has up to 100 kW of power. Since this motion is connected to the transmission, the transmission also spins the wheel up to this rate. Thus, electric cars would tend to move faster than gasoline powered cars. Components Common To Both The Electric Car And The Gasoline Powered Car The transmission is the device that does the actual turning of the wheel in both cars. There are several ways of combining the two sources of power found in a hybrid car. The Parallel Hybrid Car: This has a fuel tank which supplies gasoline to the engine. In addition, it has a set of batteries that supplies power to an electric motor. Both the engine and the engine motor can turn the transmission at the same time and the transmission then turns the wheels. Figure 3 shows a typical parallel hybrid. The fuel tank and gas engine connect to the transmission. The batteries and electric motor also connect to the transmission independently. As a result, in a parallel hybrid, both the electric motor and the gas engine can provide propulsion power. The Series Hybrid Car: The gasoline engine in this car turns a generator and the generator can either charge the batteries or power an electric motor that drives the transmission. Thus the gasoline engine never directly powers the vehicle. All of the components form a line that eventually connects with the transmission.  Hybrid Components Gasoline engine The hybrid car has a gasoline engine much like the one you will find on most cars. However, the engine on a hybrid is smaller and uses advanced technologies to reduce emissions and increase efficiency. The engine turns the generator. It is not able to power the car directly. Fuel tank The fuel tank in a hybrid is the energy storage device for the gasoline engine. Gasoline has a much higher energy density than batteries do. For example, it takes about 1,000 pounds of batteries to store as much energy as 1 gallon (7 pounds) of gasoline. Electric motor The electric motor on a hybrid car is very sophisticated. Advanced electronics allow it to act as a motor as well as a generator. For example, when it needs to, it can draw energy from the batteries to accelerate the car. But acting as a generator, it can slow the car down and return energy to the batteries. Generator The generator is similar to an electric motor, but it acts only to produce electrical power. It is used mostly on series hybrids. It is where the gas engines power gets converted to electrical power to drive the motor or charge the batteries. Batteries The batteries in a hybrid car are the energy storage device for the electric motor. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank, which can only power the gasoline engine, the electric motor on a hybrid car can put energy into the batteries as well as draw energy from them. They can store energy recovered from braking or generated by the motor. Transmission The transmission on a hybrid car performs the same basic function as the transmission on a conventional car i.e. turns the wheels. The motor can spin fast enough so that the transmission needs only one gear. Some hybrids, like the Honda Insight, have conventional transmissions. Others, like the Toyota Prius, have radically different ones like the CVT. CVT stands for Continuously Variable Transmission. It is used to vary the transmission ratio in vehicles continuously. The way CVT works depends on the type: Friction CVTs vary the radius of the contact point between two rotating objects, thus the tangential velocity; Hydrostatic CVTs vary the fluid flow with variable displacement pumps into hydrostatic motors; Ratcheting CVTs vary the stroke of a reciprocating motion, which is connected to a free-wheel, resulting unidirectional rotation. Image courtesy DaimlerChrysler The Mercedes-Benz M-Class HYPER a hybrid concept vehicle Reasons For The Introduction Of Hybrid Electric Vehicles To reduce tailpipe emissions: Gasoline cars are a major source of these emissions. Many attempts are being made by several organizations to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from cars through the development of hybrid electric vehicles. For example, Nutley, NJ-based Hoffman-La Roche, Inc. (Roche), the U. S. prescription drug unit of the Roche Group, recently announced plans to integrate Toyota Prius and Ford Escape hybrid electric vehicles into its pharmaceutical sales fleet in an effort to help achieve the companys goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 10 percent over the next five years.  To improve mileage: Automakers in the US need to meet Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards as required by law. At present, all new cars sold should be 27. 5mpg (8. 55 liters per 100km).  To overcome the shortcomings of an electric car: Electric cars have a short charge. They lacked the range (energy density of electric-vehicle batteries hovered around 70 to 100 watt-hours per kilogram, which automotive engineers called unacceptable) and the quick recharge time the auto industry said it needed. An example is seen in the case where GM introduced the EV1 in 1996. It had a top speed of 183 MPH, faster than any other production car out. It had a limiter that would not let it get above 85 MPH, because to drive the car at 183 MPH would deplete the batteries of their charge within 10 minutes.  Energy Consumption: Hybrid Electric Vehicles consume less energy than Internal-Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles.  Why Are Hybrid Electric Vehicles A Better Choice? An important aspect of hybrid electric vehicles is that they make use of smaller engines. There are many advantages to this: Big engines are heavier than smaller ones so the car uses more energy anytime it accelerates or drives up a hill. The displacement of the cylinders is larger so each cylinder requires a greater volume of fuel. Bigger engines usually have more cylinders, and each cylinder uses fuel every time the engine fires, even if the car isnt moving. These are the reasons there is a difference in the mileage of two cars of the same model with different engines. If both cars are driving along the freeway at the same speed, the one with the smaller engine uses less energy. Both engines have to output the same amount of power to drive the car, but the small engine uses less power to drive itself. In a hybrid car, the gasoline engine can be much smaller than the one in a conventional car and thus can be more efficient. The engine in the hybrid car is powerful enough to move the car along on the freeway, but when it needs to get the car moving in a hurry, or go up a steep hill, it needs help. That help comes from the electric motor and battery this system steps in to provide the necessary extra power. The gas engine on a conventional car is sized for the peak power requirement (those few times when you floor the accelerator pedal). In fact, most drivers use the peak power of their engines less than one percent of the time. The hybrid car uses a much smaller engine, one that is sized closer to the average power requirement than to the peak power. Ways Hybrid Electric Vehicles Reduce Energy Consumption Besides a smaller, more efficient engine, todays hybrids use many other tricks to increase fuel efficiency. Some of those tricks will help any type of car get better mileage, and some only apply to a hybrid. To squeeze every last mile out of a gallon of gasoline, a hybrid car can: Recover energy and store it in the battery Whenever you step on the brake pedal in your car, you are removing energy from the car. The faster a car is going, the more kinetic energy it has. The brakes of a car remove this energy and dissipate it in the form of heat. A hybrid car can capture some of this energy and store it in the battery to use later. It does this by using regenerative braking. That is, instead of just using the brakes to stop the car, the electric motor that drives the hybrid can also slow the car. In this mode, the electric motor acts as a generator and charges the batteries while the car is slowing down. Sometimes shut off the engine A hybrid car does not need to rely on the gasoline engine all of the time because it has an alternate power source the electric motor and batteries. So the hybrid car can sometimes turn off the gasoline engine, for example when the vehicle is stopped at a red light. Figure 5. The frontal area profile of a small and large car Use advanced aerodynamics to reduce drag When you are driving on the freeway, most of the work your engine does goes into pushing the car through the air. This force is known as aerodynamic drag. This drag force can be reduced in a variety of ways. One sure way is to reduce the frontal area of the car (Figure 5). Think of how a big SUV has to push a much greater area through the air than a tiny sports car. Reducing disturbances around objects that stick out from the car or eliminating them altogether can also help to improve the aerodynamics. For example, covers over the wheel housings smooth the airflow and reduce drag. And sometimes, mirrors are replaced with small cameras. Use low-rolling resistance tires The tires on most cars are optimized to give a smooth ride, minimize noise, and provide good traction in a variety of weather conditions. But they are rarely optimized for efficiency. In fact, the tires cause a surprising amount of drag while you are driving. Hybrid cars use special tires that are both stiffer and inflated to a higher pressure than conventional tires. The result is that they cause about half the drag of regular tires. Use lightweight materials Reducing the overall weight of a car is one easy way to increase the mileage. A lighter vehicle uses less energy each time you accelerate or drive up a hill. Composite materials like carbon fiber or lightweight metals like aluminum and magnesium can be used to reduce weight.  Despite the advantages of hybrid vehicles, they are a middling choice whose future is far from assured. They are likely to be a victim of regulatory circumstance in the near term, pushed aside by improvements in gasoline emissions and by the Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEV) mandate which states that a specified percentage of manufacturers sales consist of ZEVs.  In the longer term, they will be squeezed between improving batteries and emerging fuel cells. If only fuel cells and advanced batteries falter, hybrid vehicles would have considerable promise and could play a central role in creating a more sustainable transportation system. Nissan Motor Company CEO Carlos Ghosn announced that he is unsure whether hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) will remain competitive in the compact car market if the price of gasoline drops in the future. Speaking at a news conference in Tokyo, Ghosn acknowledged that Nissan will unveil a new HEV in 2006 as planned, but only to meet tightening emission regulations in California. Ghosn expressed doubt that U. S. benchmark crude prices would remain at current levels of $50 per barrel, which is fueling strong demand for HEVs. Reuters said Nissan instead plans to market its new fuel-efficient, gasoline-powered Tiida compact car to environmentally conscious drivers.  Disadvantages Of Hybrid Electric Vehicles By combining two propulsion systems and their associated energy storage units, they are inherently more complex than both pure battery-powered electric and pure internal-combustion vehicles. Comments  Daniel Sperling; Future Drive: Electric Vehicles and Sustainable Transportation, pg 101  http://auto. howstuffworks. com/hybrid-car1. htm  http://auto. howstuffworks. com/hybrid-car1. htm  http://auto. howstuffworks. com/hybrid-car2. htm  http://auto. howstuffworks. com/hybrid-car3. htm http://web1. infotrac. galegroup. com/itw/infomark/155/298/52759225w1/purl=rc1_ITOF_0_A122672547dyn=5! xrn_15_0_A122672547?sw_aep=swar94187, Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Today, Sept 30, 2004 p0 , Article A122672547 . http://auto. howstuffworks. com/hybrid-car4. htm  http://www. morphizm. com/observations/borah/borah_corner1. html  Daniel Sperling; Future Drive: Electric Vehicles and Sustainable Transportation, pg 100  http://auto. howstuffworks. com/hybrid-car8. htm  Daniel Sperling; Future Drive: Electric Vehicles and Sustainable Transportation, pg 2  Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Today, Oct. 7, 2004, p0; Article A122947647.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Refugees, Children in detention and rights Refugees, Children in detention Backdrop Half of the worlds refugees are children but their voices are amongst the least heard. Amidst the debate and conflict around refugees and border protection, the rights of refugee children have been neglected. The vulnerable condition of refugee children is evident from the statement of Ibrahim Ishreti, a refugee child living on bridging visa, he says: before coming to Australia we heard that everyones human rights and freedoms are respected here but nobody would believe what is happening to usÃ¢â¬ ¦ We dont have any human rights and are treating like animals. Like other human beings our lives are not normal and our feelings and thinking are dead. We are depressed and can not smile. Australia is signatory of significant number of human rights treaties including the1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol and own affluent custom of providing shelter to refugees, however the current policy of mandatory detention for on-shore arrival including children (whether accompanied or unaccompanied) has acutely damaged its international reputation. The mandatory detention might be justifiable policy concerns but it advanced wide community pro and contra debate and discussion in the country. The writer is a Pakistani origin immigrant in Australia. Pakistan considers a poorest country of the world host over a million Afghan refugees enjoying ample freedoms, however in Australia where the number of unauthorized arrivals has never been much more than 4000 in any one year are placed indefinitely in detention camps with limited access to services, hence the motive for selecting this topic. Key Aspects of the Policy The inherent intentions for implementing the mandatory detention policy are to have an Ã¢â¬Å"orderedÃ¢â¬ approach to immigration and to make certain that the countrys boundaries are secure. But little or no consideration has been given to the impact of these polices on the children who are caught up in them. That policy Ã¢â" Denies internationally recognised fundamental human rights to all children of particular social group; Ã¢â" Children without committing any crime are put behind razor wire and are locks up. Ã¢â" And fails to recognises the vulnerability and special needs of these children. United Nations being representative body of the international community has undertaken the responsibility for the promotion and protection of human rights of all human beings including children. Therefore the UN has adopted separate legislation i.e. Ã¢â¬Å"UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC)Ã¢â¬ in 1989 for the protection of child rights to which Australia became party in 1990. The UNCRC is an exhaustive code of guidance and management for policy development and practices relating to children. This specific child rights legislation emphasizes that a child seeking refugee status is entitle for appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance. The various human rights treaties grant universal rights to refugee children like all other people and additional rights as children and particular rights as refugee. Therefore refugee children are entitled for special treatment and care and not to be treated discriminately. Nevertheless many Australian might support or oppose the governments policy of dealing asylum seekers but the indisputable reality is that subjecting children to any form of detention is a breach of their guaranteed rights. Imprisoning these children in the context of UNCRC is either Ã¢â¬Å"cruel and inhuman treatmentÃ¢â¬ or in soft words is Ã¢â¬Å"harsh treatmentÃ¢â¬ , which are undesirable under the convention. The concerns due to which these children fled from their countries, detention adds in their sorrows and concerns. Therefore if we cant recompense their grievances and concerns then we dont have the right to add into it. The UNCRC articulates that Ã¢â¬Å"holding children in detention shall be used as a measure of last resort and only for the shortest possible timeÃ¢â¬ . But the Australian practice seems to be the denial of this vested right since here refugee children are detained at the outset of their unauthorized arrival. Without going into the facts finding of their flight for a known country putting these children in detention is like closing eyes from their dilapidated conditions they suffered from in their home countries. Being national of this country our happiest lives can never comprehend the worse situations they passed from and pushing into confinement compel them to spend formative years of their lives in detention, which will obviously damage their future personality traits. Keeping children in mandatory detention is denial of their internationally recognised basic human rights. Oftenly it has been experienced that during relief activities the children needs are not properly taking care of which are of vital importance for their normal development and growth. Every child has certain age-specific requirements that must be satisfied, for instance basic health care, nutrition and education are necessary for physical and mental development. Healthy psychosocial development depends in large measure on the nurturing and stimulation that children receive as they grow, and on the opportunities that they have to learn and master new skills. The healthy psychosocial development in refugee children should involve counseling and skills for coping effectively the multiple trauma of loss, uprooting and often more damaging experiences. Hence where the childrens developmental needs are not sufficiently met it results in long-term tragic consequences. Challenges and/or Controversies The Australia international obligations relating to refugees and children are not adequately publicised amongst public at large therefore everyone has their own perception about refugees. Majority believe that refugees are lairs, criminals, Ã¢â¬Ëforum shoppers, welfare cheats and queue jumpers. It is interesting to note neither international law recognizes the terminology of Ã¢â¬Ëqueue jumper nor other civilized nations use this terminology. The obvious reason for using this terminology could be that Australia is not willing to grant refugee status every individual opted for such status instead it has the intention to allow a carefully selected populace of pre-chosen countries to live as refugees in the country. A significant number of Australians also consider refugees a threat to economy and social services sector of the country. The arrival of children seeking refuge in Australia is comparatively less than the other developed countries, however still children remain a significant percentage of the total number of arrivals. Sometimes children flee alongwith their parents and/or guardians and sometimes alone (usually known as unaccompanied minors). The flight from homeland to the country of refuge subjects all including children to the notions of a new authority though a child neither has any motive nor has any voice in the decision of flight. Article 3 of the UNCRC gives overriding effect to the principle of Ã¢â¬ËBest Interests of the child in these wording; Ã¢â¬Å"In all actions concerning children, weather undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interest of the child shall be a primary considerationÃ¢â¬ . The principle of Ã¢â¬ËBest Interests of the child has been enunciated in different Australian laws however the law relating to onshore management of asylum seekers does not contain this principle. The Migration Amendment Act of 1992 identifies asylum seekers as designated persons. Section 189 states that Ã¢â¬Å"a designated person must be detained during the processing of their refugee statusÃ¢â¬ . Section 192 goes further giving two options for release obtaining a Temporary Protection Visa or being deported. This section spells for mandatory detention of everyone including children till the decision of his/her status. Here at this junction the lacking of distinction between immigration status of adults and children confuse the internationally accepted principle of Ã¢â¬ËBest Interests of the child and same standard treatment is in contravention of the UNCRC. The policy of mandatory detention can not be justified on the plea that since childrens needs cannot be met in isolation, therefore they are kept with their caregiver in detention. As it is believed that children needs are normally meet most effectively within the context of family and community. It is therefore, necessary to strengthen the capacities of refugee families to meet their own needs and improve the participation and situation of adult refugees particularly women, in their child related activities and in this way they will contribute significantly to the welfare of their children. Selection of one challenge and its reflection on policy based solution Best Interest In relation to the refugee children whether accompanied or unaccompanied the primary goals of any action or program must be: To ensure the protection and healthy development of these children To achieve durable solutions appropriate to the immediate and long term developmental needs of these children. In absence of any uniform definition of Ã¢â¬Ëbest interests for every child, a good indicator to judge whether a child best interests are being achieved, would be a childs aptitude that how much s/he enjoys his or her rights in a available environment. Since the UNCRC also doesnt clearly define childs Ã¢â¬Ëbest interest therefore in all actions and decisions affecting a child; Ã¢â¬Å"it is the best interests of that individual child which must be taken into account rather than children generally. The childs best interestsÃ¢â¬ ¦..must be the subject of active considerationÃ¢â¬ . It necessitates to be established that childrens interests are of primary concerns and have adequately been conferred. The principle of Ã¢â¬Ëbest interests reiterated in article 9(1) of the UNCRC states that children should never be separated from their parents against their will except when Ã¢â¬Ënecessary for the best interests of the child. The interaction between the Ã¢â¬Ëbest interests principle, family unity and immigration can be enlightened by referring preamble of the UNCRC providing a reference point by recognizing that: Ã¢â¬Å"[T]he child, for the full and harmonious development of his of her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understandingÃ¢â¬ . In order to support the best interests of the refugee children many of the obligations under the UNCRC are relevant for instance, protection from violence, the highest attainable standards of physical and mental health, special care for children with disabilities, education, keeping confidentiality of their personal information, non-discrimination, recreation and the right to full cultural life (including language) are all factors that create a nurturing environment. Incorporating Children voices into policy debate UNCRC believes Ã¢â¬Ëvoiced code for childrens participation in the programs affecting them. This legal instrument marks a change by respecting them as human being capable of full understandings and has power to decision and disregarded that they are being objects of adult intervention. The childrens right to participate in fellow societies has been accepted in articles 12-15 of the UNCRC. This convention has offered in addition to civil, political, social, economic and cultural rights, the right to freedom of opinion expression, information, religion and conscience; and the right to form associations. Refugees children being most vulnerable members of Australian society, they should have the right to have their fundamental needs for shelter, food, physical and emotional care and education have been met, and to live freely and securely within our society. Our society should value and protect them. We are equally responsible alongwith the government to ensure these needs are met if a childs family/caregiver cannot or will not protect their rights. But due to their protracted legal status refugee children have concerns. They are not part of policy decision impacting their lives, hence condemned unheard and ignored. Purportedly three agencies the federal government, the private reformative firms and the state government are in charge of the management of detention centres. There is strong likelihood that these agencies would not consider childrens interests before their own. When the managers of such agencies are in chase of jurisdictional and policy issues where would children placed? This management attitude proves the genuine worries, distress and concern of refugee children regarding their unresolved legal situation and their inability to move towards integration into the Australian community. Many children describe themselves as happy, good, but detailed their depression and distress that accompanied being in a limbo situation. The non-resolution of their migration or refugee situation is their paramount concern. The current manifestations of distress, while particularly concerning are equalled by the knowledge of the long term impact of Ã¢â¬Ënot belonging; to a community; to a state and to a nation. If a child cannot access normal citizenship, then their ability to grow emotionally and integrate themselves into their new country is diminished. These children have the possibility of becoming adults with a sense of frustration and anger that will impact on their lives and will impact on our lives in the Australian community in the forthcoming years. [NOTE: the writer considers the points of this paragraph as specifics impacting her local area of residence surrounded by refugee children] Conclusion If we step into the shoes of refugees and realize their sorrows and grieves then we will never deny the rights of refugee children to live with their families and reunite them when separated, having access to all basic necessities of life. If everyone of us recognize and struggle to make available all such rights to our children then why deny it for Iraqi, Afghan and Iranian children? We should provide them such harmonize environment where they can play, grow and learn. Ã¢â¬Å"We should keep ready ourselves to answer our children when they will look back on this time and ask what we did for refugee kids, at least we can say we gave them their childhoodÃ¢â¬ .